Anatomy of Plant Leaves in Scientific

Anatomy of Plant Leaves in Scientific
The leaves are part of plants that have an important function and role to carry out the survival of the plants themselves. Characteristics of the leaves, generally green form of the leaf is largely widened, has a chlorophyll substance that is useful to assist the process of photosynthesis.
Leaves also have parts that play an important role to help the process of growth in plants, after being studied and understood in depth, then humans will realize how important leaves are in plants. So that humans can also indirectly know the importance and use of plants in life. In the informal environment, humans generally know the shape of the leaves, but in this environment humans do not know and know the leaves specifically (Fahn, 1991).
The leaves are generally green organs located above the ground. Leaves contain large amounts of chlorophyll, the pigment that causes leaves to absorb light energy and use it to produce sugar through photosynthesis. Leaf morphology is very varied, the result of adaptation that often occurs with environmental factors pembata plant. The leaves are attached to the stem by a narrow section called the petiole. The width of the leaf is called a leaf blade. Leaf blade is usually thin and flat, and has a reinforcement system that causes the leaves to be flexible and strong (Hidayat, 1995).
One of the powers of Allah regarding plants is to grow a variety of beautiful plants. The purpose of beautiful plants is a plant that has a complete organ, including roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. With all these organs, plants can be said to be perfect plants.

General Functions of Leaves
The general functions of the leaf include:
The place of photosynthesis, in dicotyledonous plants, photosynthesis occurs in the palisade parenchyma network, whereas in monocotyledonous plants, photosynthesis occurs in spongy tissue. As a respiratory organ.
On the leaves there are stomata that function as respiration organs.
Place of transpiration.
Place of mutation.
Vegetative propagation tools, for example in the duckling "leaf bud" cocor plant.

In general, the leaves have the following morphological structure (Tjitrosoepomo, 2009):
Leaf blade (lamina).
Petiolus, there is a part that attaches to the stem called the base of the petiole. There are certain plants whose leaves are not stemmed, such as grass.
Leaf midrib (folius), on the base of the monocot plant flat and flat leaf and wrap the stem. For example: banana leaf midrib and taro leaf midrib.
Leaves that have all three parts are called perfect leaves, such as banana leaves and taro leaves. Leaves that do not have one or more leaf parts are called imperfect leaves, such as mango leaves and guava leaves.
On the surface sheet of leaves there are bones or veins of leaves. There are four types of leaf bone types, namely:
Pinnate, for example on mango leaves,
Dancing, for example on papaya leaves,
Curved, for example on yam leaves,
Parallel, for example to corn leaves,
Dicotyledonous plants generally have leaves with an arrangement of pinnate and menjari leaf bones. While monocotyledonous plants have leaves with an arrangement of parallel or curved leaf bones.

There are 3 leaf tissue structure, including epidermal tissue, mesophyll tissue, and transport tissue.

The epidermis is in the form of a single layer of cells whose walls are thickened from the substance of the cuticle (cuticle) or sometimes from lignin. In the epidermis there is a stomata (leaf mouth) flanked by two closing cells. Some stomata are located on the upper surface, for example in plants whose leaves are floating (on a lotus leaf), there are only on the lower surface, and some are on both leaf surfaces (top and bottom). The Ficus plant has an epidermis composed of two layers of cells. Additional tools found among leaf epidemics include trichomes (hair) and fan cells (Mulyani, 2006)
The leaf epidermis of different plants varies in number of layers, shape, structure, stomata structure, appearance, and trichome structure, and the presence of special cells. The internal structure is usually flat. Leaves have two types of epidermal tissue namely the upper surface of the leaf is called the adaxial surface and the lower surface is called the abaxial surface. At this layer there is no space between cells.
Among the epidermis cells are guard cells that form stomata. This stomata structure that can open and close functions as a place for gas and water exchange. The most important trait in this leaf tissue is its compact cell arrangement and the presence of cuticles and stomata (Campbell, 2005).

Mesophyll is the basic tissue layer located between the upper epidermis and the lower epidermis and between the transport beams. Mesophiles can be composed of relatively homogeneous parenchyma or differentiate into palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma. In accordance with its function, the mesophyll parenchyma is a major photosynthetic region because it contains chloroplasts (Sutrian, 2004).
Palisade parenchyma is cylindrical cells, arranged in a row lined up like a fence. Palisade parenchyma is generally found in the upper layers of the leaves, occupying up to ½ to 2/3 mesofi, but can also be found on both sides of the leaf surface. The number of layers of palisade cells can be one layer or more (Hidayat, 1995).
Mesophyll consists of parenchymal tissue found inside the epidermis. Mesophiles undergo differentiation to form photosynthetic tissue containing chloroplasts. In most plants there are two types of parenchyma in mesophyll, namely palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma.

Palisade parenchyma
Palisade parenchyma cells are elongated and the cross section looks like a rod arranged in a row. In certain plants, palisade cells take different forms. In Lilium there are large lobes in palisade cells and appear to be branched (Fahn, 1991).
Palisade cells are located under the unilateral (layer) or multilateral (multi-layered) epidermis. There is often hypodermis between the epidermis and palisade tissue. Palisade parenchyma cells are composed of one or more layers. When composed of more than one layer, the length of cells in each layer or the same, or even getting to the middle is getting shorter. Palisade tissue is usually found on the abaxial surface of the leaf.
Although the palisade tissue looks more dense, the long sides of the cell are separated so that the air in the intercellular space still reaches the long side; chloroplast in the cytoplasm attached to the edge of the cell wall. This resulted in the process of photosynthesis can take place efficiently (Kertasapoetro, 1991).

Perenkin Sponge
Sponge tissue consists of branched cells which are irregular in shape. The shape of spongy parenchyma cells can take many forms. Its specialty is the presence of lobes (cavities) that exist between one cell and another. Differentiating between palisade parenchyma cells and spongy parenchyma is not always easy, especially if the palisade parenchyma consists of several layers.
The reason is that if the palisade consists of several layers, usually the innermost layer is very similar to the sponge parenchyma that is nearby (Mulyani, 2006).

Development of the Leaf Axis

Development of the Leaf Axis
This carrier file is usually divided into 2 types namely, xylem and phloem. These transport beam cells are thin-walled to facilitate inter-cell transport, possibly having chloroplasts such as mesophyll. Often there are crystals. In most dicotyledonous leaves, the parenchymal transport beam extends toward the epidermis on one or both sides of the leaf. Cells that reach the direction of the epidermis function in transporting the leaves. Not only the Dikotil leaves that have a transport file, but also the transport file is contained in Monocotyl leaves (Campbel, 2005).

In general, leaf development starts from the initial stage (initiation), initial differentiation, leaf axis development, the origin of leaf strands, and histogenesis of leaf blade tissue.

Initial stage (Initiation)
Leaf initiation begins with the division of periclins in groups of small cells on the shoot side. The number of layers of cells that begin to divide and their position in shoots varies in different plants. Primordia leaves originate from layers of the outermost layers of shoots (Hidayat, 1995).
In all Dicotyledonous plants, the first division of pericline does not occur in the cell surface layer, but in cells that lie one or two layers below. The surface layer is expanded by anticline cleavage several times (Hidayat, 1995).
The most common case, the initiation of leaf primordia begins in the cell layer below the surface layer. In this case the tunica cell layer and its neighbor cell layer from the corpus participate in the different initiation of primordium (Fahn, 1991).

Early Differentiation
As a result of continued cell division, leaf primordium protrudes from the shoots as a support which has the form of small papillae or bulges. Leaf support consists of a protoderm layer and prokambium strands, which grow acropetally and not far from the trunk cavium (Sumardi, 1993).

Development of the Leaf Axis
In most Dikotil and Gymnosperms leaves, the development of the leaf axis precedes the leaf blade. The results of the rapid development of primordia into a conical shape that is pointed with the side of the adaksalpipih (flat). This cone tip is an apical meristem. In certain plants, from the initial stage of development when the primordium is still 1 mm in size, an increase or further development will occur due to cell division and elongation which is far from the tip of the primordium. This growth is called intercalar growth (Sumardi, 1993).

The origin of the leaf blade
During the initial elongation and thickening of the young leaf axis, the axial edge cells continue to divide rapidly. The initials are the outermost layer cells on the edge of young leaf strands. In Angiosperms, these initials usually divide only in the direction of the anticline and the addition of new cells occurs in the direction of the abaxial and adaxial protoderm (Sutrian, 2004).
In the fringed and pinnate compound leaves, lateral leaf strands develop from the merax of the adaxial margins and the young leaf axis as two rows of papillae. In other plants, leaf development occurs acropetally or bisepetally (Sutrian, 2004).

Histogenesis of Leaf Leaves Network
Peripheral growth lasts longer than apical growth, but stops relatively early. After the periphery growth stops, further growth of the leaf's hair is carried out by the division of the leaf blade cells. Anticline cleavage forms meristem plates. Meristem plate activity results in an increase in surface area, but there is no organ thickening. In leaf blades, meristem cells are layered so that it is relatively easy to trace the origin of the epidermis, palisade tissue and sponges, as well as transport beams (Hidayat, 1995).
Leaf growth is controlled by genetic factors, but it is also influenced by external and internal environmental conditions. Outside factors that affect the leaves include water supply, nutrition, day length and light intensity. Image of Leaf Development

The active separation of leaves from branches, without leaving a wound, is called leaf absision. Leaves are often dated during the dry season, or when there is a lack of water, leaving no injuries. Absection is also a useful adaptation to release old leaves, ripe fruit and flowers that will not produce fruit, and is a way of pruning themselves if the number of branches is too much (Hidayat, 1995).
Leaf absences are usually prepared near the base of the petiole or leaf base. This abortion area can be distinguished histologically from other tissues, that is, the exterior is marked by the presence of shallow indentations or the presence of epidermal color differences (Hidayat, 1995).
Vascular system in the abortion area is usually centered in the middle. The development of sklerenkim and kolenkim is not good or even absent. In the area of abortion there are two layers of separation, the place where the release of organs and is a protective layer from the drought and entry of parasites (Mulyani, 2006).
In the abscess area, there was a cytological and biochemical change in the cells in the separating area which finally separated the leaves from their branches. In most leaves, flowers and fruit and some stems, preparation of the abscess layer occurs during ontogeny. However, the abscess layer can also occur immediately after there are conditions that stimulate absection. In the abscess area, the clerified tissue is often reduced and the network of vessels condenses in the middle, not at the edges. In some species, such absentee areas are at the meeting place of the leaf stalk and joints (Sumardi, 1993).

Histologically, separation or absection occurs through the following histological stages:
1). Rupture of pith cells
2). Cell division in the cortex
3). Cell differentiation and enlargement
4). Breakdown of vascular and cortex cells
The date of the leaves or leaves does not need to be always associated with the dissolution of the cell wall or middle lamela. In most monocots and some wet dicots, physical stress results in leaf separation (Fahn, 1991).
Image Formation of Leaf Absection Area

Based on the availability of water in the environment, it can be distinguished into Xerophyte plants and Hydrophytic plants, each of which has Xeromorphic and Hydrophobic properties.

Xeromorfi, Figure Xeromorfi
Adaptation of plants that are Xeromorphic Epidermis can be composed of more than 1 layer of cells, stomata hidden in 1 concave, (Cryptophore), palisade is on both sides of the leaf surface in other words palisade parenchyma is more developed than spongy parenchyma, and even parenchyma sponges can be absent, the epidermis often grows trichomes, and epidermal cells undergo thick lignification (Hidayat, 1995).

Hydromorphic image
Adaptations of plants that are Hydromorphic are stomata often protruding outward, have large air spaces and epidermis without cuticles and contain chloroplasts. Factors which mainly affect aquatic plants are temperature, air, and the concentration and composition of salt in water. The most prominent structural properties in the leaves of aquatic plants are the reduction in the strengthening and protective tissue, the reduced amount of transport tissue, especially xylem, and the presence of many air voids (Hidayat, 1995).

Dicotle Leaves
Pictures of Dikotil Leaves
Pictures of Dikotil Leaves
Monocot Leaves
Image of Monocot Leaves
The location of the difference is based on the pole network (palisade)
In monocots, there is no pole network
In dicot, there are two tissues (Palisade and Sponge).

The conclusion obtained in the making of this paper is the leaf is a plant organ that functions for photosynthesis. In general, plant anatomy is divided into 3 tissues, namely: epidermis, mesophyll, and bundle file. The epidermis functions as a protector, and in one part there is a stomata that functions as a way in and out of water and gas such as CO2 and O2.
Mesophiles consist of palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma networks, which contain chlorophyll and automatically function in photosynthesis. While the bundle of vessels in which there are xylem and phloem certainly functions in the transportation or transportation of water and the results of photosynthesis.

Types of Ecological Pyramid Types

Types of Ecological Pyramid Types
Detritus food chain
The flow of the detritus food chain can be seen in the following figure: Figure 2. Example of the detritus food chain.
In the picture above, it is known that detritus can be in the form of destruction of animal or plant tissue. In figure (a), detritus in the form of animal tissue remains is eaten by caterpillars and then rats, snakes and birds. But in the end, all these organisms can become detritus as well. Whereas in picture (b), detritus in the form of broken down plants is eaten by woodlice which is then eaten by birds.

c. Parasite food chain
Parasites are a term for organisms that live by harming other organisms (host). Characteristic of this type of food chain is that there are small organisms that prey on large organisms.
Consider the following parasitic food chain example. buffalo (blood) -> fleas ==> starlings ==> eagle

d. Saprofit food chain
The characteristics of the saprophytic chain begin with the decomposition of the dead bodies of living things by saprophytic organisms. Examples of saprophytic organisms are bacteria, fungi, and lichens. Saprofit is a term for organisms that are able to break down the remains of organisms that have died.
Saprophyte organisms are different from detritifors. Saprofit decomposes organic matter left over dead bodies into inorganic materials (minerals) that are absorbed again by plants. Pay attention to the following sample food chain saprofit. Weathered wood -> fungus -> chicken -> fox

Food webs
In an ecosystem generally not only consists of one food chain, but many food chains. Green plants are not only eaten by one organism, but can be eaten by a variety of primary consumers. For example: shoe flowers are eaten by caterpillars, caterpillars also eat mustard leaves. Mustard leaves are also eaten by grasshoppers, grasshoppers eaten by frogs and sparrows, sparrows also eat caterpillars, sparrows are eaten by eagles.
Mustard leaves are also eaten by rats, rats are eaten by eagles. As a result, in an ecosystem there is not only one food chain but many forms of the food chain. Food chains which are interconnected from one another are called food webs.

Ecological Pyramid
Ecological pyramid is a pyramid diagram that can illustrate the relationship between trophic level with trophic level, quantitatively in an ecosystem. In this pyramid, organisms that occupy the lower trophic level are relatively numerous in number. The higher the trophic level, the smaller the number of individuals. The trophic level consists of producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers.
Producers always occupy the first or lowest trophic level. Whereas herbivores or primary consumers occupy the second trophic level, secondary consumers occupy the third trophic level, tertiary consumers occupy the fourth trophic level or the top of the pyramid.

Types of Ecological Pyramid Types
Energy pyramid is a pyramid that describes the loss of energy at the time of food energy transfer at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
In the energy pyramid it is not only the total amount of energy that the organism uses at each trophic level of the food chain but also concerns the role of various organisms in energy transfer. In energy use, the higher the trophic level, the more efficient the use. However, the heat released in the energy transfer process becomes greater. The loss of heat in the process of respiration is also increasing from organisms with lower trophic levels to organisms with higher trophic levels.
As for productivity, getting to the top of the trophic level is getting smaller, so that the stored energy is getting less. Energy in the energy pyramid is expressed in calories per unit area per unit time.

Biomass Pyramid
The biomass pyramid is a pyramid that illustrates the reduction in energy transfer at each trophic level in an ecosystem. In the biomass pyramid each trophic level shows the dry weight of all organisms at the trophic level expressed in grams / m2. Generally the shape of the biomass pyramid will shrink towards the peak, because the energy transfer between trophic levels is inefficient. But the biomass pyramid can be inverted.
For example in the open ocean the producers are microscopic phytoplankton, while consumers are microscopic creatures to large creatures such as blue whales where the biomass of blue whales exceeds the producers. The peak of the biomass pyramid has the lowest biomass which means that the number of individuals is small, and generally the carnivorous individual at the top of the pyramid is large.

Pyramid of Amount
Namely a pyramid that describes the number of individuals at each trophic level in an ecosystem. Number pyramid generally shaped upward.
The number of pyramid organisms from the lowest trophic level to the peak is the same as other pyramids, namely producers, primary consumers and secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers. This means that the number of plants in the first trophic level is more than in animals (primary consumers) in the second trophic level, the number of secondary consumer organisms is less than the primary consumer, and the number of tertiary consumer organisms is less than secondary consumer organisms.

Food Chain: Definition and Types

Food Chain: Definition and Types
Food Chain: Definition, Types, Nets, Examples and Pictures - The food chain is the process of eating and eating - in a series of organisms - in a specific order.
Every living thing needs energy to live. living things get energy from a food they eat, and all living things get energy from food. On occasion I will review the food chain in full. Therefore, let us consider the review below.

Understanding Food Chain
The food chain is an event of eating and eating between fellow living creatures in certain sequences. In a food chain there are living things that have a role as producers, consumers, and as decomposers (decomposers). In the event of the food chain there is a process of eating and being eaten in a certain order. And each level of the food chain in an ecosystem is also called the trophic level.
At the first trophic level that is an organism that can produce or make its own food substance that is green plants can also be called a producer. Then the organism that ranks second in the tropics level is primary consumers (first-level consumers), these consumers are generally occupied by herbivorous animals (plant eaters).
Furthermore, organisms that occupy the order of the third tropical level are also called secondary consumers (Second-level Consumers), generally occupied by carnivorous animals (meat-eating animals) and so on. And organisms that occupy the highest or the last tropical level are also called peak consumers, usually occupied by omnivorous animals.

Food chain in the fields
One form of mutual relations between living things is the "Food Chain". The food chain is the process of eating and being eaten - in a series of organisms - in a specific order. Each group of organisms is involved in the process of eating or being eaten.
This process occurs in a chain. Some groups of organisms prey on other groups of organisms. And these predatory organisms also fall prey to other groups of organisms. Consider the following food chain example.

Image of food chain scheme in the rice fields
Plants as autotrophic organisms produce food in the form of flower nectar. Butterflies as plant eaters consume honey flowers. Frogs catch butterflies to eat. Snakes hunt frogs to eat and eagles eat snakes.
The food chain picture above is one example of a food chain that occurs in a rice field community. You can look for examples of food chains in other ecosystems.
The food chain becomes an entry point for the flow of energy for living things. The energy comes from the sun which is converted by autotrophic organisms (food makers) such as plants into chemical energy (in stems, fruits, leaves, etc.). Meanwhile heterotrophic organisms (unable to make their own food) obtain energy by eating autotrophic organisms.

Types of Food Chains
based on the starting organism, the food chain turns out to be divided into several types. Grass chain, detritus chain, parasitic chain, and saprofit chain. Following are the differences of each type.

a. Grazing food chain
This food chain is the most frequently encountered and recognized. This food chain starts from plants as producers at the first trophic level. An example of this one food chain cycle is: grass ==> grasshopper ==> bird ==> snake.

Grain Food Chain
Other Examples: In the picture above, it is known that grass that is autotrophic acts as a producer, then eaten by grasshoppers, then grasshoppers are eaten by lizards and finally lizards are eaten by eagles.
In figure (c), grass as producers is eaten by grasshoppers as the first consumer, grasshoppers are eaten by frogs as second consumers, frogs are eaten by snakes as third consumers, and snakes are eaten by eagles as fourth consumers. Furthermore, if the eagle dies, the carcass will be eaten by other organisms and broken down by decomposing bacteria.

b. Detritus food chain
This food chain does not start from a plant, but starts from a detritivor. Detritivor is a heterotrophic organism that gets energy by eating the remains of living things.
Examples of detritus food chain cycles are: leaf flakes (garbage) ==> earthworms ==> chicken ==> humans.
Detritus is a fragment (broken) of organisms (animals and plants) that die and the rest of the organism such as animal dung, leaves, deciduous branches which are decomposed by decomposers (decomposers). Then which includes detritus-eating organisms are called detritivors, for example worms, termites, worms and so on.

Understanding Hydroponics and Examples With Their Kinds Of Plants

Understanding Hydroponics And Examples With Their Kinds Of Plants
Understanding Hydroponics And Examples With Their Kinds of Plants - Hydroponics is a cultivation of cultivation using water without utilizing soil and emphasizes the growth of nutritional needs for plants. The need for water in hydroponic plants is less than the need for water in aquaculture using soil media. Hydroponics uses water more efficiently, so it is suitable to be applied in areas that have limited water supply.

Beginning of Landless Cultivation
Examples of hydroponic plants
Initially Gericke interpreted the growth of hydroponic plants with mineral nutrient solutions. Hydroponics is cultivation without soil. Many cultivation without soil but with a solution for hydroponics.
Plants that are not mashed with technique in general will be able to grow using controlled environmental systems such as hydroponics. It seems that NASA is also utilizing this hydroponics in the space program. Ray Wheeler, a plant physiologist at the Space Life Science Center's Space Center Laboratory, Kennedy, believes that hydroponics will have a role in making progress in space travel. He called it a bioregenerative support system.

Types of Hydroponics
Static solution culture
Continuous-flow solution culture, for example: NFT (Nutrient Film Technique), DFT (Deep Flow Technique)
Passive sub-irrigation
Ebb and flow or flood and drain sub-irrigation
Run to waste
Deep water culture

In English hydroponics (hydroponic) which comes from the Greek word hydro which means water and ponos which means power. Hydroponics is also known as soilless culture or the meaning of landless cultivation. So hydroponics works with plants that use water by not using soil for their growing media.

Hydroponic technique
Hydroponic techniques are mostly carried out on a small scale for hobbies among the people in Indonesia. In selecting the types of plants to be cultivated on a commercial business scale, more attention must be given, because not all agricultural products have economic value. Types of plants that have high economic value as hydroponic cultivation, namely:
Japanese eggplant
Basic Method
Hydroponics has a free understanding of ways or techniques in farming by increasing the fulfillment of nutritional needs in plants, or in our understanding planting without using soil media. From this understanding we can see that the hydroponic farming technique begins with the increasing human attention to the need for fertilizer for plants.
Plants everywhere will still grow if the nutrients (nutrients) needed are always fulfilled. In this case the stoic function is as a buffer of plants and the water available is a nutrient solvent, and can then be absorbed by plants. That mindset ultimately gave birth to hydroponic farming techniques, where the emphasis was on meeting the needs of plant nutrition.

Definition and Function of Judicial Institutions

Definition and Function of Judicial Institutions
Judicial Institutions - Definition, Power, (MA), (MK), Judicial, Duties, Functions: Judicial power is closely related to the other two powers (Legislative and executive) and is closely related to individual rights and obligations.

Definition of Judicial Power
Judicial power is closely related to the other two powers (legislative and executive) and closely related to individual rights and obligations. While the Judiciary is an institution of judicial power that holds full power to administer the judiciary, not least in Indonesia.

Definition of Judicial Power
Judicial power is the power held by citizens to supervise the implementation of the law through its representatives who sit in the institution of the Supreme Court (MA). This institution acts as a social control tool, the implementation of which is carried out on institutions of executive power.
This institution has the authority to reprimand, advise, or provide suggestions to the government in relation to the implementation of the GBHN and the legislative product's product laws.
This judicial institution is independent, meaning that its power is not restricted, either by the executive or the legislative body, but is limited by the Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution as the basis of the state which is the source of all legal norms that apply in Indonesian society / state.
Judicial power or the so-called judicial power, that is, the power to administer justice to uphold law and justice. This power is held by the Supreme Court (MA) and the Constitutional Court (MK)
as affirmed in Article 24 paragraph (2) of the 1945 Constitution which states that judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court and judicial bodies below it in the general court, religious court, military court, state administrative court, and by the Constitutional Court .

Judicial Power in Indonesia
Azaz is independent of the judiciary (independent judiciary) also known in Indonesia. That is contained in the explanation (Articles 24 and 25) of the 1945 Constitution concerning judicial power which states: "Judicial power is an independent power, meaning that it is independent of the influence of governmental power. In connection with that, guarantees must be made in the Law regarding the position of Judges.
However, in the period of guided democracy there has been a deviation of the principle of freedom of the judiciary as stipulated in the 1945 Constitution, namely by the issuance of Law No. 19 of 1964 concerning the basic provisions of judicial power, which in Article 19 of the Law states:
"In the interest of the revolution, the honor of the state and nation or the interests of the people who are pressing, the president can participate or intervene in matters of court".
In the general explanation of the Act it is stated that "the Politica trias do not, have any place at all in Indonesian National law" because we are in a revolution, and it goes on to say that "the Court is not free from the influence of executive power and the power to make laws.
The Judiciary power has the authority to interpret the contents of the law as well as impose sanctions for any violations thereof. Judicial functions that can be specified in the following list of legal issues:

Criminal law (petty offense, misdemeanor, felonies)
Civil law (marriage, divorce, inheritance, child care)
Constitution law (issues surrounding interpretation of the constitution)
Administrative law (the law governing state administration)
International law (international agreement).
Judiciary Institution
Power in the Government of Indonesia has long been applied, this is to maintain a fair government and far from political monopolies. Therefore, a high state institution has been created which has the role to carry out the tasks and authority in their respective fields.

Despite having different duties and authorities, the country's high institutions have the same position and position. High state institutions have complementary functions.

Supreme Court (MA)
The Supreme Court (MA) is a high state institution in the Indonesian constitutional system which is the holder of judicial power together with the Constitutional Court and is free from the influence of other branches of power. The Supreme Court oversees the judiciary within the general court, the religious court, the military court, the state administrative court.

The composition of the Supreme Court
The Supreme Court consists of a leader, a member judge, a registrar, and a secretary. The leaders and judges of members of the Supreme Court are Supreme Court justices. the highest number of judges is 60 (sixty).

Supreme Court Judge
At the Supreme Court there are a maximum of 60 Supreme Court Justices. Supreme Court justices can come from career systems or non-career systems. Prospective Supreme Court Justices are proposed by the Judicial Commission to the House of Representatives, to then get approval and be appointed as Supreme Court justices by the President. The task of the Supreme Court Judge is to hear and decide cases at the Cassation level.

Obligations and Authority of the Supreme Court

Obligations and Authority of the Supreme Court
According to the 1945 Constitution, the obligations and authority of the Supreme Court are:

The authority to adjudicate at the cassation level, examine the statutory provisions under the Act, and have other powers granted by the Act
Submitting 3 members of the Constitutional Justice
Give consideration in terms of the President giving clemency and rehabilitation.
Constitutional Court
The Constitutional Court (MK) is a high state institution in the Indonesian constitutional system which is the holder of judicial power together with the Supreme Court.

Obligations and Powers of the Constitutional Court
Based on the provisions in article 24 paragraph (2) of the 1945 Constitution the Constitutional Court is one of the actors of judicial power other than the Supreme Court. Judicial power is an independent power to administer justice to uphold law and justice.
Thus, the Constitutional Court is a judicial institution, as a branch of judicial power, which hears certain cases which become its authority based on the provisions of the 1945 Constitution.
Based on Article 24C paragraph (1) of the 1945 Constitution which is reaffirmed in Article 10 paragraph (1) letters a through d of Law 24/2003, the authority of the Constitutional Court is:
Examine the law against the 1945 Constitution;
Decide upon the disputes over the authority of state institutions whose authority is granted by the 1945 Constitution;
Decide upon dissolution of political parties; and
Deciding upon disputes regarding the results of general elections.
In addition, based on Article 7 paragraph (1) through (5) and Article 24C paragraph (2) of the 1945 Constitution which is reaffirmed by Article 10 paragraph (2) of Law 24/2003,
the obligation of the Constitutional Court is to give a decision on the opinion of the DPR that the President and / or Vice President have violated the law, or are disgraceful, or do not meet the requirements as President and / or Vice President as referred to in the 1945 Constitution.

Chairman of the Constitutional Court
The Chair of the Constitutional Court is elected from and by Constitutional Justices for a term of 3 years. The term of office of the Chief Justice for 3 years as stipulated in Law 24/2003 is a bit strange, because the term of office of the Constitutional Justice himself is 5 years, so that means that for the second term of the Chief Justice of the Constitutional Court within one term the Constitutional Justice ends before his time (only 2 years) .

Constitutional Justice
The Constitutional Court has 9 Constitutional Justices established by the President. Constitutional Justices are nominated 3 people each by the Supreme Court, 3 people by the House of Representatives, and 3 people by the President. The term of office for Constitutional Justices is 5 years, and can be re-elected for the next 1 term.

Judicial Commission
The Judicial Commission is a state institution formed based on Law no. 22 of 2004 which functions to oversee the behavior of judges and propose names of prospective justices.

The Purpose of the Judicial Commission
In order to conduct intensive monitoring of the implementation of judicial power by involving elements of the community.
Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of judicial power both regarding the recruitment of supreme judges and monitoring the behavior of judges.
Maintaining the quality and consistency of judicial institutions' decisions, because they are always monitored intensively by institutions that are truly independent.
Be a liaison between government power and judicial authority to ensure the independence of judicial power.
Judicial Commission Authority
The Judicial Commission has the authority to propose the appointment of Supreme Court justices and other authorities in the context of maintaining and upholding the honor, dignity, and conduct of judges.

Judicial Commission Duties
Proposing the Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Judicial Commission has the task:
Registering Supreme Judge candidates;
Select candidates for Supreme Court Justices;
Determine candidates for Supreme Court Justices; and
Submitting candidates for Supreme Court Justices to the DPR.
Maintaining and Upholding Honor, Nobleness and Behavior Judges of the Judicial Commission have the task:
Receive reports of public complaints about judge behavior,
Conduct examination of alleged violations of judge behavior, and
Make a report on the results of the examination in the form of recommendations submitted to the Supreme Court and the copies submitted to the President and the Parliament.

Member of the Judicial Commission
The membership of the Judicial Commission consists of former judges, legal practitioners, legal academics, and community members. Members of the Judicial Commission are State officials, consisting of 7 people (including Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson who are concurrently Members). Members of the Judicial Commission hold office for a period of 5 (five) years and thereafter can be re-elected for 1 (one) term of office.